Summary of the history of biology

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Organic understanding in ancient times

  • the very first human knowledge about organisms came from daily life (hunting, event).
  • very early interest in plants and animals that were in some way valuable (farming).
  • from 13-14 Thousand Years BC recognized depiction of a massive with a recommended heart.
  • intentional farming of plants and also domestication of animals from about 8. millennium BC.
  • healing is likewise creating, it was originally a magical-cult personality (they managed trepanations, amputations, cracks).Summary of the history of biology

Organic understanding in antiquity as well as antiquity

  • Old EGYPT: primarily expertise of human anatomy (perhaps because of embalming) and Developing Biology (total advancement of the notched woodpecker, the development of the butcher from a worm living in meat, the advancement of frogs from tadpoles).
  • Ancient India: high degree of surgical treatment (urolithiasis as well as cataract surgical procedure), dissection of human bodies (but not reduce, the body was macerated for 7 days in running water as well as the skin was after that scraped off).
  • Old China: treatise on herbs-the oldest clinical work ever before, a stock of 300 medicinal natural herbs.
  • as a whole, ancient culture was of decisive relevance for the whole of European culture.
  • unique scientific techniques did not exist, natural science expertise part of viewpoint, which back then summarized all human knowledge.

for the additional advancement of the Natural Sciences, the adhering to 2 concepts of thought was very important:.

  • atomism (Demokritus, 460-370 BC): additional indivisible atoms as the basis of all points.
  • the doctrine of the 4 components (Empedocles, 430 -? B.C.): fire, earth, water, air.
  • Hippocrates (460-377 BC): “papa of medicine”, complying with the four elements, recognizes in the body four juices (blood, mucus, black and yellow bile), on the appropriate ratio of which the wellness of a person depends– from this later obtained four types of temperament (sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic, choleric).
  • one of the most important number in old natural science was certainly Aristotle of Stageira (384-322 BC): disciple of Plato, educator of Alexander the excellent, about 300 writings.
  • Historia animalium (Natural History of Pets), De partibus animalium (on parts of Animals), De generation animalium (on the beginning of pets) – passed down throughout the Middle Ages.
  • comparative composition + a rundown of the concept of correlation (specified in 19. Cuvier), an attempt to define a biological types + system of animals (Enaima – with red blood, Anaima-without red blood).
  • he likewise researched the reproduction of animals (egg-bearing, viviparous), yet in reduced animals he promoted the idea of self-reproduction (as an example, worms hatch from mud).
  • his concept of nature was teleological, that is, that all microorganisms go through causal activity, whereby an established objective is understood.
  • he viewed the body of a living microorganism as an easy issue/ substance that is jazzed up by a dynamic pressure/ form– the matter of the body is an opportunity, just the form (= spirit = Entelechy) gives it reality as a creating concept– this is later on followed by the vitalists.
  • he had a huge influence, being a biological Authority till he was 18. century.

Theophrastus (371-287 BC): founder of systematic genetics, yet likewise thinking about morphology, phytogeography, processing of plants and also their usage in medicine/pharmacology

  • all-natural expertise in old Rome: Columella (writings on farming), Pliny the elder (collection Encyclopedia Historia naturalis), Dioscorides (Pathology of medicinal plants in Materia medica).
  • Galenos (129-205? A.D.): individual medical professional of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, physiological knowledge was acquired by studying pets, thereby dedicating several errors that lingered into the Middle Ages (as an example, his suggestion of blood flow, where, according to him, the blood is developed in the liver, from where it streams right into the ideal heart and also openings in the septum gets into the Left Heart, where precisely (Atlas, Achilles ligament, some cranial nerves); founder of humoral concept.

Organic understanding between ages (5.– 15. Century)

  • call European and Arab culture.
  • Arabs focused on medication (healthcare facilities + medical schools and libraries).
  • they were based upon Aristotle and also Galen, which they discussed– after translating these Arabic writings, Europeans therefore got to Greek ideology.
  • remarkable authors: Ibn Zakariya al Razi (Rhazes), Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn RUSD (Averroes).
  • theology initially denied aristotelism, the synthesis of aristotelism and Christianity in the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274; Thomism)– gradually formed a detailed view of the globe called scholasticism.
  • the tradition of very early middle ages institutions proceeds from 12. century universities, which are the highest possible educational institution.
  • traditionally, 4 faculties: artistic (seven liberal arts were instructed), along with doctrinal, legal, clinical.
  • at first, the training at medical institutions was mostly academic, the authorities were spent for by ancient scholars (Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galenos, Avicenna).
  • scientific research was made below not for application, but for expertise itself.
  • by the end of the Center Ages, their potential had actually been worn down and they were moving towards intellectual formalism => > the decrease of colleges connected with the onset of the Renaissance.Organic understanding between ages (5.-- 15. Century)

Biological Sciences in the Renaissance (15.– 16. Century)

  • Renaissance = a massive social and also social motion that resulted in basic changes in literature, art, scientific research, ideology, and also life in general = the quest of a new nonreligious society that was to replace the older feudal culture based upon the church based upon the initiative to restore Roman anti-humanism = the social and also spiritual movement of the late Middle Ages and also early modern.
  • 16.– 17. in the XXI century taboos for Scientific Study autumn as well as the foundations of biological self-controls begin to develop as separate techniques (separation from viewpoint, respectively, medicine).
  • an unique figure was the artist, scientist and also creator Leonardo da Vinci( 1452-1519): alignment to useful knowledge, the study of composition (autopsies, the exploration of the thyroid gland).
  • dissections of bodies come to be the basis of clinical makeup, the owner of which is Andreas Vesalius( 1514-1564): revision of backwards anatomical views of ancient authorities and the publication of the first contemporary textbook anatomie De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (on the building and construction of the human body the book of 7).
  • at colleges, the so-called Theater anatomica is produced with collections of physiological preparations, which are utilized for teaching, education, however likewise for home entertainment similar to public autopsies (the first public autopsy in Bohemia: Jan Jesenius in Prague in 1600).
  • William Harvey (1578-1657): Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus (physiological observations on the activity of the heart as well as blood in animals; Fig. 3)– summary of blood circulation in a shut system of capillary (× Galen’s blood, which was eaten in tissues, see above); it is also credited to him Omne vivum ex OVO (all living points from an egg).
  • Genetics: steady separation from medication (originally the emphasis was generally on medical plants), the appearance of the very first herbariums (Mathioli, 1501-1577), the structure of arboretums.
  • Zoology: Konrad Gesner (1516-1565) released the five-volume Historia animalium as well as Ulysse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) compiled a monumental Zoological Encyclopedia of more than 7,000 web pages; Pierre Belon contrasted human and bird skeletons in 1555, laying the structures comparative makeup.